Governance, Online & Offline Citizenship (WP4)
 /  Governance, Online & Offline Citizenship (WP4)

The aim of this work package is to develop the project’s fourth transversal, cross-disciplinary theme focusing on governance and online & offline citizenship.


Governance of intelligence agencies
The roles and responsibilities of intelligence agencies in Europe have grown organically. With recent revelations, there is a growing need to review the practices of intelligence agencies. The research will focus on designing a proposal for intelligence reform which redefines what practices and activities may be acceptable in a modern democratic society based on principles of transparency and accountability. Research will address the cost-effectiveness of cyber-intelligence operations, with a special focus on the legal and ethical costs. A workshop will be organized for bringing together stakeholders, policy makers and academics to determine current practices, tools used and a preliminary understanding of the current technological and legal dimensions of cyber intelligence operations.


Balancing security and safety needs with rights of citizens online and offline
This task will explore two aspects of the need to find the right balance to allow law enforcement and intelligence agencies to do their jobs well while securing that the fundamental human rights of citizens (be they offline or online) are respected. The research will explore the tools currently available for using open source intelligence, the purposes for which they are used and understand better how fundamental rights of citizens such as privacy, freedom of expression, citizenship etc. may be affected by the use of open source intelligence. This task will explore how the needs of the different stakeholders using open source intelligence may be reconciled with citizens’ rights.


New technologies and privacy-by-design architectures online & offline
This task will address privacy and data protection concerns associated to current technological developments in the field of security. Existing work on privacy by design mostly focus on technologies rather than methodologies and on components rather than architectures. This task advocates the idea that privacy by design should also be addressed at the architectural level and be associated with suitable methodologies. The research is focused on exploring the legal dimension of linkage and aggregation of digital evidence in a closed and in an open ecosystem. The study addresses the data protection concerns associated for data policies.
The research will include the study of the legal safeguards needed to be put into place to ensure the proper functioning and interoperability of large ecosystems. The research will focus on studying the role played by privacy and consent in the development and use of identity management systems.